In this section you will find a list of journal papers related to the use of SGRT Technology classified by treatment site.

SGRT Publications


  1. Pham NL, et al. Frameless, real-time, surface imaging-guided radiosurgery: Update on clinical outcomes for brain metastases. Translational Cancer Research 2014;3 (4):351-357.

  2. Conclusion: Surface Image Guided Radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial metastases can produce outcomes comparable to those with conventional frame-based and frameless SRS techniques while providing greater patient comfort with an open-faced mask and fast treatment time.

  3. Baker B, Sullivan T. Trigeminal rhizotomy performed with modern image-guided linac: Case report. Cureus 2013;5 (9):e139.

  4. Conclusion: Linear accelerator-based radiosurgery utilizing intrafraction motion management and image guidance offers an acceptable alternative for the radiation treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients if absolute doses are measured prior to treatment.

DIBH Background:

  1. Darby SC, et al. Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in Women after Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med 2013;368 (11):987-998.

  2. Zagar TM, Cardinale DM Marks LB. Breast cancer therapy-associated cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2016;13 (3):172-184.

  3. Taylor CW, et al. Exposure of the Heart in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of Heart Doses Published During 2003 to 2013. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015;93 (4):845-853.

  4. Lemanski C, et al. Image-guided radiotherapy for cardiac sparing in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Front Oncol 2014;4:257.

  5. Harris EE, et al. Late cardiac mortality and morbidity in early-stage breast cancer patients after breast-conservation treatment. J Clin Oncol 2006;24 (25):4100-4106.

  6. Harris EE. Cardiac mortality and morbidity after breast cancer treatment. Cancer Control 2008;15 (2):120-129.

  7. Clarke M, et al. Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: An overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2005;366 (9503):2087-2106

  8. Marks LB, et al. The incidence and functional consequences of rt-associated cardiac perfusion defects. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;63 (1):214-223.

  9. Rochet N, et al. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique in left-sided breast cancer radiation therapy: Evaluating cardiac contact distance as a predictor of cardiac exposure for patient selection. Pract Radiat Oncol 2015;5 (3):e127-134.


  1. Flampouri S, et al. Position verification of breast treatment with breath‐hold technique using 3D‐surface and fluoroscopic imaging. Medical Physics 2008;35 (6):2713-2713.

  2. Conclusion: Although, there are limits on position reproducibility and stability with deep inhalation breath-holds, treating left breast patients with this method is beneficial. 3D-surface imaging is an important tool for monitoring motion for near the surface treatments.

  3. Cervino LI, et al. Using surface imaging and visual coaching to improve the reproducibility and stability of deep-inspiration breath hold for left-breast-cancer radiotherapy. Phys Med Biol 2009;54 (22):6853-6865.

  4. Conclusion: The reproducibility and stability of the DIBH improve significantly from the visual coaching provided to the patient, especially in those patients with poor reproducibility and stability.

  5. Gierga DP, et al. A voluntary breath-hold treatment technique for the left breast with unfavorable cardiac anatomy using surface imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;84 (5):e663-668.

  6. Conclusion: Daily real-time surface imaging ensures accurate and reproducible positioning for BH treatment of left-sided breast cancer patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy.

SGRT for General Breast:

  1. Chang AJ, et al. Video surface image guidance for external beam partial breast irradiation. Pract Radiat Oncol 2012;2 (2):97-105.

  2. Conclusion: Video surface mapping of the breast is a more accurate method for isocenter placement in comparison to conventional laser-based alignment or orthogonal kilovoltage imaging of the chest wall.

  3. Bert C, et al. Clinical experience with a 3D surface patient setup system for alignment of partial-breast irradiation patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006;64 (4):1265-1274.

  4. Conclusion: Surface imaging for PBI setup appears promising. Alignment of the 3D breast surface achieved by stereo-photogrammetry shows greater breast topology congruence than when patients are set up by laser or portal imaging. A correlation of breast surface and CTV must be quantitatively established.

SGRT for Head & Neck:

  1. Zhao B, et al. Feasibility of Open Mask Immobilization with Optical Imaging Guidance (OIG) for H&N Radiotherapy. Med Phys 2016;43.

  2. Conclusion: Optical Image Guidance can potentially provide accurate setup and treatment tracking for open face and neck immobilization.

  3. Wiant D, et al. A prospective evaluation of open face masks for head and neck radiation therapy. Pract Radiat Oncol 2016.

  4. Conclusion: Open masks provide comparable immobilization and posture preservation to closed masks for HN radiation therapy.

  5. Zhao B, Maquilan G, Jiang S, Schwartz DL.Minimal mask immobilization with optical surface guidance for head and neck radiotherapy. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2018 Jan;19(1):17-24. doi: 10.1002/acm2.12211. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

  6. Conclusion: These pilot results confirm feasibility of minimal mask immobilization combined with commercially available optical image guidance. Patient acceptance of minimal mask immobilization has been encouraging. Follow-up validation, with direct comparison to standard mask immobilization, appears warranted.

SGRT for other applications:

  1. Li G, et al. Characterization of optical-surface-imaging-based spirometry for respiratory surrogating in radiotherapy. Med Phys 2016;43 (3):1348-1360.

  2. Conclusion: The optical surface imaging (OSI) based technique provides an accurate measurement of tidal volume, airflow rate, and breathing pattern; all affect internal organ motion. This technique can be applied to various breathing patterns, including FB, BB, and CB. Substantial breathing irregularities and irreproducibility were observed and quantified with the OSI-based technique. These breathing parameters are useful to quantify breathing conditions, which could be used for effective tumor motion predictions.

  3. Gierga DP, et al. Analysis of setup uncertainties for extremity sarcoma patients using surface imaging. Pract Radiat Oncol 2014;4 (4):261-266.

  4. Conclusion: Intrafraction motion is small. Interfraction motion can exceed typical PTV margins and daily imaging should be utilized to reduce setup variations. Surface imaging may reduce setup errors and is a feasible technique for daily image guidance.

CAREONLINE Publications


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